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锻造水平分析 Forging level analysis

2021-09-15


  中国锻造行业是在引进、消化、吸收国外技术的基础上发展起来的,经过多年的技术发展与改造,行业中企业的技术水平,包括工艺设计、锻造技术、热处理技术、机加工技术、产品检测等方面均有了较大提高。
 
  (1)工艺设计
 
  先进厂家普遍采用了热加工计算器模拟技术、计算器辅助工艺设计以及虚技术, 提高了工艺设计水平和产品制造能力。引入并应用DATAFOR、GEMARC/AUTOFORGE、DEFORM、LARSTRAN/SHAPE和THERMOCAL等仿真程序,实现计算器设计和热加工的过程控制。
 
  (2)锻造技术
 
  40MN及以上的水压机多数配备了100-400t.m主锻造操作机和20-40t.m的辅助操作机,相当数量的操作机采用计算器控制,实现了锻件锻造过程的综合控制,使锻造精度可控制在±3mm,锻件的在线测量采用激光尺寸测量装置。
 
  (3)热处理技术
 
  重点在于提高产品质量、提高热处理效率以及节约能源、保护环境等。如采用计算器控制加热炉和热处理炉的加热过程,控制烧嘴实现自动调节燃烧、调节炉温、自动点火及加热参数管理;余热利用、热处理炉配备再生燃烧室等;采用具有低污染能力和能够有效控制冷却的聚合物淬火油槽,各种水性淬火介质逐渐取代传统的淬火油等。
 
  (4)机加工技术
 
  行业内数控机床的比例逐步提高,部分行业内企业设有加工中心,根据不同类型的产品配备了专有的加工机械,如五坐标加工中心、叶片加工机、轧辊磨、轧辊车床等。
 
  (5)质量保障措施
 
  国内部分企业已配备最新的检测仪表和测试技术,采用计算器控制数据处理的现代自动化超声波探伤检测系统,采用各种专用的自动超声波探伤系统,完成各种质量体系的认证等。高速重载齿轮锻件产品的关键生产技术不断被攻克,并在此基础上实现了产业化生产。在引进国外先进生产技术和关键设备的基础上,中国已能自己设计和制造高速重载齿轮锻件的生产装备,这些装备已接近国际先进水平,技术和装备水平的提升有力的促进了国内锻造行业的发展。
 
 
  China forging industry is in the introduction, digestion, absorption of foreign technology on the basis of the development, after years of technological development and transformation of the industry's leading technology level, including process design, forging technology, heat treatment technology, machining technology, products Testing and other aspects have been greatly improved.
 
  (1) process design
 
  Advanced manufacturers commonly used thermal processing computer simulation technology, computer-aided process design and virtual technology, improve the level of process design and product manufacturing capabilities. Introduce and apply the simulation program such as DATAFOR, GEMARC / AUTOFORGE, DEFORM, LARSTRAN / SHAPE and THERMOCAL to realize the process control of computer design and hot working.
 
  (2) forging technology
 
  40MN and above the hydraulic press is equipped with a majority of 100-400t.m main forging machine and 20-40t.m auxiliary operation machine, a considerable number of operating machine using computer control, to achieve a forging process of integrated control, so that forging accuracy Control at ± 3mm, forging the on-line measurement using laser size measuring device.
 
  (3) heat treatment technology
 
  The focus is to improve product quality, improve heat treatment efficiency and energy conservation, environmental protection and so on. Such as the use of computer-controlled heating furnace and heat treatment furnace heating process, control the burner to achieve automatic adjustment of combustion, adjust the furnace temperature, automatic ignition and heating parameter management; waste heat utilization, heat treatment furnace equipped with regenerative combustion chamber, etc .; with low pollution capacity and can Effective control of the cooling of the polymer quenching oil tank, a variety of water-based quenching medium gradually replace the traditional quenching oil.
 
  (4) machining technology
 
  The proportion of CNC machine tools in the industry gradually increased, some enterprises within the industry with processing centers, according to different types of products equipped with a proprietary processing machinery, such as five coordinate processing center, blade processing machine, roll mill, roll lathe and so on.
 
  (5) quality assurance measures
 
  Some domestic enterprises have been equipped with the latest detection instruments and test technology, the use of computer control data processing of modern automated ultrasonic flaw detection system, using a variety of dedicated automatic ultrasonic flaw detection system to complete a variety of quality system certification. High-speed heavy-duty gear forging products, the key production technology has been overcome, and on this basis to achieve the industrial production. In the introduction of foreign advanced production technology and key equipment on the basis of China has been able to design and manufacture high-speed heavy-duty gear forging production equipment, these equipment is close to the international advanced level, the level of technology and equipment to enhance the promotion of the domestic forging industry development of.