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齿轮锻件轴的重要作用 The important role of gear forging shaft

2021-09-15


  齿轮轴锻件根据轴线形状的不同,轴可以分为曲轴和直轴两类。根据轴的承载情况,又可分为:
 
  ①转轴,工作时既承受弯矩又承受扭矩,是机械中最常见的轴,如各种减速器中的轴等。
 
  ②心轴,用来支承转动零件只承受弯矩而不传递扭矩,有些心轴转动,如铁路车辆的轴等,有些心轴则不转动,如支承滑轮的轴等。
 
  ③传动轴,主要用来传递扭矩而不承受弯矩,如起重机移动机构中的长光轴、汽车的驱动轴等。
 
  在设计中,齿轮轴的运用一般无外乎以下几种情况:
 
  1、齿轮轴一般是小齿轮(齿数少的齿轮)
 
  2、齿轮轴一般是在高速级(也就是低扭矩级)
 
  3、齿轮轴一般很少作为变速的滑移齿轮,一般都是固定运行的齿轮,一是因为处在高速级,其高速度是不适进行滑移变速的。
 
  4、齿轮轴是轴和齿轮合成一个整体的,但是,在设计时,还是要尽量缩短轴的长度,太长了一是不利于上滚齿机加工,二是轴的支撑太长导致轴要加粗而增加机械强度(如刚性、挠度、抗弯等)。
 
  减速器中齿轮及齿轮轴是重要的传动零件,工作时承受弯矩和扭矩,要求较好的综合力学性能,轮齿部分承受较大的弯曲应力、接触应力和摩擦,要求较高的强度、韧性和耐磨性。齿轮及齿轮轴的材料一般为45钢或者低、中合金钢,具有较高的强度及较好的塑韧性。因此,一般采用锻压的方法实现这些零件的成形过程。
 
 
  Gear shaft forgings Depending on the shape of the shaft, the shaft can be divided into crankshaft and straight shaft. According to the bearing of the shaft, can be divided into:
 
  ① shaft, work both bear bending moment and bear the torque, is the most common mechanical axis, such as various reducer shaft.
 
  ② mandrel, used to support the rotating parts only bear the bending moment without passing torque, some mandrel rotation, such as the railway vehicle shaft, etc., some mandrel does not rotate, such as support pulley shaft.
 
  ③ drive shaft, mainly used to transmit torque without bending moment, such as the crane moving mechanism of the long optical axis, the car's drive shaft.
 
  In the design, the use of gear shaft is generally nothing less than the following:
 
  1, gear shaft is generally pinion (teeth less gear)
 
  2, the gear shaft is generally in the high-speed level (that is, low-torque level)
 
  3, the gear shaft is rarely used as a variable speed slip gear, are generally fixed gears, one because at the high-speed level, the high speed is not suitable for slip speed.
 
  4, the gear shaft is a shaft and gear synthesis of a whole, but in the design, or to try to shorten the length of the shaft, too long is not conducive to the hobbing machine processing, the second is too long support shaft shaft And increase the mechanical strength (such as rigidity, deflection, bending, etc.).
 
  Reducer gear and gear shaft is an important transmission parts, work to bear the moment and torque, requiring better comprehensive mechanical properties, the teeth part of the greater bending stress, contact stress and friction, requiring a higher strength, Toughness and abrasion resistance. Gear and gear shaft material is generally 45 steel or low, medium alloy steel, with high strength and good plastic toughness. Therefore, the use of forging methods are generally used to achieve the process of forming these parts.