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各类锻件锻后的冷却技术 All kinds of forgings forging after the cooling technology

2021-09-15


  锻件的锻后处置是影响其最终机械性能的重要环节。均匀冷却的锻件会产生均匀的内部组织和均匀的机械性能,给下步热处理提供良好的先决条件。好的锻件尤如生出一个又聪明、又健康、又漂亮的娃娃,后续的教育能够顺利培养其上大学深造。否则,如果生出一个带有先天性体内和智力缺陷的孩子,那么后续的热处理工序是难以保证其考试及格、顺利上大学的。
 
  常见锻件成形后的冷却方式:
 
  1.高碳钢和高合金钢,为了防止表面开裂,需要锻后堆冷、炉冷、埋沙冷或炉前烘烤缓冷,然后及时进行热处理。
 
  2.奥氏体不锈钢需要锻后立即入水。目的是尽快保持住其现有晶粒尺寸,不要发生长大。同时,也不希望有更多的内部组织或质点析出,然后再固溶处理。
 
  3.所有其它常规的中低碳钢和中低合金钢锻件,锻后必须垫起空冷。目的是使其冷却均匀、组织均匀和性能均匀,防止晶粒长大和出现混晶,便于书写标识。黑色金属锻件入炉热处理前的表面温度不能小于50℃,防止出现白点。
 
  常规中低碳钢、合金钢锻件的冷却要求:
 
  1.大型锻件(通常重量大于500kg或平面尺寸大于300mm),一般都不允许直接放在地面上冷却,因为会产生上下两面冷却不均匀、组织性能不均匀。
 
  2.对于常规大型锻件的锻后冷却,合理的方法有下列三种:①垫起空冷;②搭起空冷,比如搭在垫铁上或先前锻造的较冷锻件上;③摞放时上下层间要垫起,通常按10%高度计算,即1000mm截面要垫高100,2000mm垫高200等。
 
 
  Forging forging is an important part of the ultimate mechanical properties. Uniformly cooled forging will produce uniform internal organization and uniform mechanical properties, to the next step heat treatment to provide a good prerequisite. Good forging, such as giving birth to a smart, healthy, and beautiful dolls, follow-up education to successfully cultivate its college. Otherwise, if you give birth to a congenital and mental retardation of the child, then the follow-up heat treatment process is difficult to ensure that the examination pass, go to college.
 
  Common forging After forming the cooling method:
 
  1. High-carbon steel and high-alloy steel, in order to prevent surface cracking, the need for forging after the cold, cold furnace, buried sand or baking cool before the furnace, and then timely heat treatment.
 
  2. Austenitic stainless steel is required to enter the water immediately after forging. The purpose is to keep its existing grain size as soon as possible, do not grow up. At the same time, do not want to have more internal organization or particle precipitation, and then solution treatment.
 
  3. All other conventional medium and low carbon steel and medium and low alloy steel forgings, after forging must be air-cooled. The purpose is to make it evenly cooled, uniform and uniform performance, to prevent grain growth and the emergence of mixed crystal, easy to write logo. Ferrous metal forging into the furnace before the heat treatment surface temperature can not be less than 50 ℃, to prevent the emergence of white spots.
 
  Conventional medium and low carbon steel, alloy steel forgings cooling requirements:
 
  1. Large forgings (usually more than 500kg weight or plane size greater than 300mm), are generally not allowed to directly on the ground cooling, because it will produce uneven cooling on both sides, uneven organizational performance.
 
  2. For the conventional large forging forging after the cooling, a reasonable method has the following three: ① pad from the air cooling; ② put up air cooling, such as on the horn or the previous forging cold cold forging; ③ stacking up and down Between the pad, usually 10% height calculation, that is, 1000mm cross-section to be high 100,2000 mm pad height 200 and so on.