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锻件可焊性的影响因素 Influencing Factors of Weldability of Forging

2021-09-15


  锻件的可焊性是指金属材料在一定的工艺条件下,通过焊接形成优质接头的性能,分为工艺可焊性和使用可焊性两类。
 
  工艺可焊性:主要指在一定的焊接工艺条件下,获得优质焊接接头的难以程度,即锻件金属材料对形成焊接缺陷的敏感性。
 
  使用可焊性:主要指金属的焊接接头对使用要求的适应性和安全性,包括焊接的机械性能,耐腐蚀性能等。
 
影响因素:
 
  锻件材料因素:它既包括钢材本身的化学成分,又包括所选用的焊接材料的化学成分(包括焊条、焊丝、焊剂、保护气体等)。钢材焊接性能的好坏主要取决于它的化学成分组成。而其中影响较大的是碳元素,也就是说金属含碳量的多少决定了它的可焊性。
 
  工艺因素:它包括从选择焊接方法和制定合理的工艺措施两个方面来影响焊接性。
  
  构件类型因素:它包括焊接结构和焊接接头的形式,刚度及应力状态等,其将直接影响接头的力学性能及产生缺陷的倾向。
 
  使用要求因素:就是焊接结构的使用条件对焊接性的限制。它包括结构在高温、低温下、在腐蚀介质中,在动、静载荷交变载荷等条件下工作时,对焊接性的限制。
 
 
  Forging the weldability refers to the metal material in a certain process conditions, through the formation of high-quality joint welding performance, divided into two types of solderability and the use of solderability.
 
  Process Solderability: mainly refers to a certain welding process conditions, access to high-quality welded joints difficult degree, that is, forging metal materials on the formation of welding defects of the sensitivity.
 
  Use of solderability: mainly refers to the metal welded joints on the use of the requirements of the adaptability and safety, including the mechanical properties of welding, corrosion resistance and so on.
 
Influencing factors:
 
  Forging material factors: it includes the chemical composition of the steel itself, but also the chemical composition of the selected welding material (including electrodes, welding wire, flux, shielding gas, etc.). The quality of steel welding depends mainly on its chemical composition and the most influential of which is the carbon element, that is, how much metal carbon content determines its solderability.
 
  Process factors: it includes from the choice of welding methods and the development of reasonable technical measures in two ways to affect the weldability.
 
  Component Type Factor: It includes the form of welding structure and welded joint, stiffness and stress state, which will directly affect the mechanical properties of the joint and the tendency to produce defects.
 
  The use of requirements factors: the use of welding structure is the use of welding restrictions. It includes the structure at high temperature, low temperature, in the corrosive medium, in the dynamic and static load load and other conditions of work, the restrictions on the welding.